Urinary System.

Urinary System.

1. Which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney? 

a. urine storage

b. excretion of waste

c. maintenance of fluid balance

d. regulate synthesis of vitamin D

e. regulate synthesis of RBCs

2. The network of capillaries that is located in Bowman’s capsule is called the


a. vasa recta.

b. glomerulus.

c. peritubular capillary.

d. proximal convoluted capillary.

e. efferent arteriole. Urinary System.

3. Choose the term that does not belong. 

a. glomerulus

b. macula densa

c. juxtaglomerular cells

d. juxtaglomerular apparatus

e. afferent arteriole

4. The vasa recta is a specialized portion of the 

a. glomerulus.

b. afferent arteriole.

c. efferent arteriole.

d. peritubular capillary.

e. interlobular artery.

Urinary System.

5. The part of the cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is the 

a. renal fraction.

b. filtration fraction.

c. clearance fraction.

d. glomerular flow rate.

e. cardiac fraction.

6. Most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the 

a. proximal convoluted tubule.

b. descending loop of Henle.

c. ascending loop of Henle.

d. distal convolute tubule.

e. collecting duct.

7. Urea is 

a. secreted into the filtrate by cells of the distal convoluted tubule.

b. diffuse out of the collecting ducts into the interstitial fluid of the medulla and then diffuse into the descending loop of Henle.

c. completely reabsorbed by the nephron.

d. actively transported into the filtrate by cells of the collecting duct.

e. None of these choices is correct. Urinary System.

8. A countercurrent mechanism is in 

a. the afferent and efferent arterioles.

b. the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule.

c. the proximal and distal tubules.

d. the loop of Henle only.

e. both the loop of Henle and the vasa recta.

9. Filtrate reabsorption, which is not under hormonal control, is referred to as 

a. active.

b. obligatory.

c. facultative.

d. countercurrent.

e. nonessential.

Urinary System.

10. Angiotensin II 

a. is a potent vasodilator.

b. stimulates aldosterone secretion.

c. is formed from angiotensin I by the action of renin.

d. acts on the collecting ducts to increase reabsorption of water.

e. decreases blood pressure.

Chapter 27 Water Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance

1. Which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water? 

a. plasma

b. interstitial compartment

c. intracellular compartment

d. extracellular compartment

e. cytoplasm


2. One difference between the plasma and interstitial fluid is that the plasma has significantly more _____ than interstitial fluid. 

a. protein

b. bicarbonate

c. chloride

d. water volume

e. hydrogen ions

3. Which of the following events occurs last? 

a. release of renin by the kidney

b. release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex

c. sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules

d. angiotensinogen ( angiotensin I

e. angiotensin I ( angiotensin II

4. Increased ADH secretion could be stimulated by which of the following situations? 

a. increased renal blood flow

b. increased blood osmolality

c. increased atrial natriuretic hormone production

d. increased blood pressure

e. decreased blood osmolality Urinary System.

5. Potassium levels in the body are regulated by 

a. ADH.

b. PTH.

c. calcitonin.

d. aldosterone.

e. insulin.

Urinary System.

6. Most of the calcium in the body is in the 

a. bones.

b. plasma.

c. kidneys.

d. GI tract.

e. extracellular fluid.

7. Stimulus for the secretion of parathyroid hormone is a decrease in serum 

a. potassium levels.

b. calcium levels.

c. calcitonin levels.

d. phosphate levels.

e. sodium levels.

8. Increased osmolality of the ECF 

a. increases thirst.

b. inhibits ADH.

c. increases renin secretion.

d. increases aldosterone secretion.

e. decreases thirst.

9. pH 

a. increases with acidity.

b. is measured on a scale of 0 to 10.

c. is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration.

d. reflects sodium content of body fluids.

e. is not related to amounts of carbon dioxide in the body.

10. In renal compensation of acidosis, 

a. H+ secretion decreases; bicarbonate excretion increases.

b. H+ secretion decreases; bicarbonate reabsorption increases.

c. H+ secretion increases; bicarbonate reabsorption increases.

d. H+ secretion increases; bicarbonate excretion increases.

e. H+ secretion decreases; bicarbonate excretion decreases.

Urinary System.