Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

The purpose of this assignment is to provide an opportunity for you to review an area of interest and apply the concepts you have learned in this course to a patient situation .In clinical decision making, you must combine knowledge and evidence to make a good decision .Using critical thinking and reading skills, you will meet multiple objectives for this Assignment 2: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Assignment 2: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Paper Criteria

  • Synthesize relevant information, including research related to the diagnosis and treatment of the selected disorder.Assignment 2: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Paper
  • Recognize the assumptions inherent in the current literature and identify any unstated or missing information .
  • Develop and justify various approaches to the stated problem, including nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment .
  • Clearly articulate at least two approaches to the treatment of the condition .
  • Defend the choice of the treatment option .This must include a reflection on the availability of peer-reviewed information and your analysis of the credibility of that information .
  • Create a plan for follow-up and referral if needed .Assignment 2: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Paper


The following are examples of disease states that you might want to study .These are just examples .You can select whatever area is of interest to you .

  • Asthma
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmunory Disease (COPD)
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II
  • Major Depression
  • Migraine Headaches
  • Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Hyperlipidemia. Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Submit your answers in a Microsoft Word document of 10–15 pages .Include peer-reviewed references in APA format .Be sure to review the directions and grading criteria to assure that you will cover the content well.Assignment 2: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Paper

NSG 6005 All Week Assignment Latest SU

NSG 6005 Week 1 Assignment 3 Quiz

Question 1 .The U .S .Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates:

Prescribing of drugs by MDs and NPs

The official labeling for all prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs

Off-label recommendations for prescribing

Pharmaceutical educational offerings

Question 2 .The U .S .Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA):

Registers the manufacturers of, and those who are prescribers of controlled substances .

Regulates NP prescribing at the state level

Sanctions providers who prescribe drugs off-label

Provides prescribers with a number they can use for insurance billing

Question 3 .Precautions that should be taken when prescribing controlled substances include:

Faxing the prescription for a Schedule II drug directly to the pharmacy. Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Using tamper-proof papers for all prescriptions written for controlled drugs

Keeping any presigned prescription pads in a locked drawer in the clinic

Using only numbers to indicate the amount of drug to be prescribed

Question 4 .Alterations in drug metabolism among Asians may lead to:

Slower metabolism of antidepressants, requiring lower doses

Faster metabolism of neuroleptics, requiring higher doses

Altered metabolism of omeprazole, requiring higher doses

Slower metabolism of alcohol, requiring higher doses

Question 5 .Incorporating IT into a patient encounter takes skill and tact .During the encounter, the provider can make the patient more comfortable with the IT the provider is using by:

Turning the screen around so the patient can see material being recorded

Not placing the computer screen between the provider and the patient

Both A and B

Neither A nor B. Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

NSG 6005 Week 2 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question :A patient’s nutritional intake and lab work reflect hypoalbuminemia .This is critical to prescribing because:

Distribution of drugs to target tissue may be affected

The solubility of the drug will not match the site of absorption

There will be less free drug available to generate an effect

Drugs bound to albumin are readily excreted by the kidney

Question 2 .Drugs that have a significant first-pass effect:

Must be given by the enteral (oral) route only

Bypass the hepatic circulation

Are rapidly metabolized by the liver and may have little if any desired action

Are converted by the liver to more active and fat-soluble forms

Question 3 .An advantage of prescribing a sublingual medication is that the medication is: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Absorbed rapidly

Excreted rapidly

Metabolized minimally

Distributed equally

Question 4 .Which one of the following statements about bioavailability is true?

Bioavailability issues are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges or sustained release mechanisms .

All brands of a drug have the same bioavailability .

Drugs that are administered more than once a day have greater bioavailability than drugs given once daily .

Combining an active drug with an inert substance does not affect bioavailability .

Question 5 .The route of excretion of a volatile drug will likely be:

The kidneys

The lungs

The bile and feces

The skin


NSG 6005  Week 3 Assignment 2 Quiz

Question 1 .Ray has been diagnosed with hypertension, and an ACE inhibitor is determined to be needed .Prior to prescribing this drug, the nurse practitioner should assess for: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper



Decreased renal function

Inability to concentrate

Question 2 .A potentially life-threatening adverse response to ACE inhibitors is angioedema .Which of the following statements is true about this adverse response?

Swelling of the tongue and hoarseness are the most common symptoms .

It appears to be related to a decrease in aldosterone production .

The presence of a dry, hacky cough indicates a high risk for this adverse response .

Because it takes time to build up a blood level, it occurs after being on the drug for about one week .

Question 3 .Rodrigo has been prescribed procainamide after an episode of MI .He is monitored for dyspnea, jugular venous distention, and peripheral edema because they may indicate:

Widening of the area of infarction

Onset of congestive heart failure

An electrolyte imbalance involving potassium

Renal dysfunction

Question 4 .Which of the following is true about procainamide and its dosing schedule?

It produces bradycardia and should be used cautiously in patients with cardiac conditions that a slower heart rate might worsen .

GI adverse effects are common, so the drug should be taken with food .

Adherence can be improved by using a sustained-release formulation that can be given once daily .

Doses of this drug should be taken evenly spaced around the clock to keep an even blood level .

Question 5 .Furosemide is added to a treatment regimen for heart failure, which includes digoxin .Monitoring for this combination includes:


Serum potassium

Blood urea nitrogen

Serum glucose. Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper


NSG 6005 Week 4 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question : Many patients self-medicate with antacids .Which patients should be counseled to not take calcium carbonate antacids without discussing with their providers or a pharmacist first?

Patients with kidney stones

Pregnant patients

Patients with heartburn

Postmenopausal women

Question 2 .A patient with a COPD exacerbation may require:

Doubling of inhaled corticosteroid dose

Systemic corticosteroid burst

Continuous inhaled beta 2 agonists

Leukotriene therapy

Question 3 .

When prescribing montelukast (Singulair) for asthma, patients or parents of patients should be instructed as follows:

Montelukast twice a day is started when there is an asthma exacerbation .

Patients may experience weight gain on montelukast .

Aggression, anxiety, depression, and/or suicidal thoughts may occur when taking montelukast .

Lethargy and hypersomnia may occur when taking montelukast .

Question 4 .

Lifestyle changes are the first step in the treatment of GERD .A food that may aggravate GERD is:


Honey Dew



Question 5 .Kelly has diarrhea and is wondering if she can take loperamide (Imodium) for the diarrhea .Loperamide:

Can be given to patients of all ages, including infants and children, for viral gastroenteritis

Slows gastric motility and reduces fluid and electrolyte loss from diarrhea

Is the treatment of choice for the diarrhea associated with E .coli 0157

May be used in pregnancy and by lactating women


NSG 6005 Week 5 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question : Jake, a forty-five-year-old patient with schizophrenia, was recently hospitalized for acute psychosis due to medication noncompliance .He was treated with intramuscular (IM) long-acting haloperidol .Besides being monitored for his schizophrenia symptoms, the patient should be assessed by his primary care provider: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

For excessive weight loss

With the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) for extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) symptoms

Monthly for tolerance to the haloperidol

Only by the mental health provider as most nurse practitioners in primary care do not care for mentally ill patients

Question 2 Sarah, a forty-two-year-old female, requests a prescription for an anorexiant to treat her obesity .A trial of phentermine is prescribed .Prescribing precautions include understanding that:

Obesity is a contraindication to prescribing phentermine .

Anorexiants may cause tolerance and should only be prescribed for six months .

Patients should be monitored for postural hypotension .

Renal function should be monitored closely while the patient is on anorexiants .

Question 3 .Cara is taking levetiracetam (Keppra) to treat seizures .Routine education for levetiracetam includes reminding her:

To not abruptly discontinue levetiracetam due to the risk of withdrawal seizures

To wear a sunscreen due to photosensitivity from levetiracetam

To get an annual eye exam while on levetiracetam

To report weight loss if it occurs

Question 4 .A nineteen-year-old male was started on risperidone .Monitoring for risperidone includes observing for common side effects, including:

Bradykinesia, akathisia, and agitation

Excessive weight gain


Potentially fatal agranulocytosis

Question 5 .Prior to starting antidepressants, patients should have laboratory testing to rule out:



Diabetes mellitus

Low estrogen levels


NSG 6005 Week 6 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question : Xi, a fifty-four-year-old female, has a history of migraine that does not respond well to OTC migraine medication .She is asking to try Maxalt (rizatriptan) because it works well for her friend .Which of the following actions would you take for appropriate decision making? Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Prescribe Maxalt, but to monitor the use, only give her four tablets with no refills .

Prescribe Maxalt and arrange to have her observed in the clinic or urgent care with the first dose .

Explain that rizatriptan is not used for postmenopausal migraines and recommend Fiorinal (aspirin and butalbital) .

Prescribe sumatriptan (Imitrex) with the explanation that it is the most effective triptan .

Question 2 .Chronic pain is a complex problem .Some specific strategies to deal with it include ________ .

telling the patient to “let pain be your guide” to using treatment therapies

prescribing pain medication on a pro re nata (PRN) basis to keep down the amount used

scheduling return visits on a regular basis rather than waiting for poor pain control to drive the need for an appointment

All the given options

Question 3 .Phil is starting treatment with febuxostat (Uloric) .Education of patients starting febuxostat includes which one of the following instructions?

Gout may worsen with therapy .

Febuxostat may cause severe diarrhea .

The patients should consume a high-calcium diet .

The patients will need frequent CBC monitoring .

Question 4 .The Pain Management Contract is most appropriate for:

Patients with a history of chemical dependency or possible inappropriate use of pain medications

All patients with chronic pain who will require long-term use of opiates

Patients who have a complex drug regimen

Patients who see multiple providers for pain control

Question 5 .Patients whose total dose of prednisone exceed 1 gram will most likely need a second prescription for _________ .

metformin, a biguanide to prevent diabetes

omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor to prevent peptic ulcer disease

naproxen, an NSAID to treat joint pain

furosemide, a diuretic to treat fluid retention


NSG 6005 Week 7 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question :

A twenty-two-year-old woman receives a prescription for oral contraceptives .Education for this patient includes:

Counseling regarding decreasing or not smoking while taking oral contraceptives

Advising a monthly pregnancy test for the first three months she is taking the contraceptive

Advising that she may miss two pills in a row and not be concerned about pregnancy

Informing her that her next follow-up visit is in one year for a refill and “annual exam”

Question 2 .Sallie has been diagnosed with osteoporosis and is asking about the once-a-month pill to treat her condition .How do bisphosphonates treat osteoporosis?

By selectively activating estrogen pathways in the bone

By reducing bone resorption by inhibiting PTH

By reducing bone resorption and inhibiting osteoclastic activity

By increasing PTH production

Question 3 .Elderly patients who are started on levothyroxine for thyroid replacement should be monitored for: Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Excessive sedation

Tachycardia and angina

Weight gain

Cold intolerance

Question 4 .Intranasal calcitonin is used in the treatment of osteoporosis .For which patient is Calcitonin therapy appropriate?

Thin, Caucasian perimenopausal women

Men over the age of sixty-five years with osteoporosis

Women over the age of sixty-five years with osteopenia

Women over the age of sixty-five years with severe osteoporosis

Question 5 .The ongoing monitoring of patients over the age sixty-five years taking alendronate (Fosamax) or any other bisphosphonate is:

Annual dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans

Annual vitamin D level

Annual renal function evaluation

Electrolytes every three months


NSG 6005 Week 8 Assignment 2 Quiz

1 .Question :

When blood glucose levels are difficult to control in type II diabetes, some form of insulin may be added to the treatment regimen to control blood glucose and limit complications risks .Which of the following statements are accurate based on research?

Premixed insulin analogues are better at lowering hemoglobin A1c and have less risk for hypoglycemia .

Premixed insulin analogues and the newer premixed insulins are associated with more weight gain than the oral antidiabetic agents .

Newer premixed insulins are better at lowering hemoglobin A1c and postprandial glucose levels than are long-acting insulins .

Patients who are not controlled on oral agents and have postprandial hyperglycemia can have NPH insulin added at bedtime .

Question 2 .Lispro is an insulin analogue produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology .Which of the following statements about this form of insulin is not true?

The optimal time of preprandial injection is fifteen minutes .

The duration of action is increased when the dose is increased .

It is compatible with NPH insulin .

It has no pronounced peak .

Question 3 .Unlike most type II diabetics where obesity is a major issue, older adults with low body weight have higher risks for morbidity and mortality .The most reliable indicator of poor nutritional status in older adults is:

Weight loss in previously overweight persons

Involuntary loss of 10% of body weight in less than six months

Decline in lean body mass over a twelve-month period

Increase in central versus peripheral body adiposity

Question 4 .Sulfonylureas may be added to a treatment regimen for type II diabetics when lifestyle modifications and metformin are insufficient to achieve target glucose levels .Sulfonylureas have been moved to Step 2 therapy because they:

Increase endogenous insulin secretion . Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Have a significant risk for hypoglycemia .

Address the insulin resistance found in type II diabetics .

Improve insulin binding to receptors .

Question 5 .The drugs recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for use in children with diabetes (depending upon type of diabetes) are:

Metformin and insulin

Sulfonylureas and insulin glargine

Split-mixed dose insulin and GLP-1 agonists

Biguanides and insulin lispro


NSG 6005 Week 9 Assignment 3 Quiz

Question 1 .Jonathan has been diagnosed with strep throat and needs a prescription for an antibiotic .He says the last time he had penicillin he developed a red, blotchy rash .The appropriate antibiotic to prescribe would be:

Penicillin VK, since his rash does not sound like a serious rash


Cefadroxil (Duricef)


Question 2 .Tetracyclines are contraindicated in children younger than 8 years because of:

Risk of developing cartilage problems

Development of significant diarrhea

Risk of kernicterus

Adverse effects on bone growth

Question 3 .Lisa is a healthy non-pregnant adult woman who recently had a UTI .She is asking about drinking cranberry juice to prevent a recurrence of the UTI .The answer to give her would be:

“Sixteen ounces per day of cranberry juice cocktail will prevent UTIs .”

“100% cranberry juice or cranberry juice extract may decrease UTIs in some patients .”

“There is no evidence that cranberry juice helps prevent UTIs .”

“Cranberry juice only works to prevent UTIs in children .”

Question 4 .Rose is a 3 year old with an upper respiratory infection (URI) .Treatment for her URI would include:




Nasal saline spray

Question 5 .Patient education for a patient who is prescribed antibiotics for sinusitis includes:

Use of nasal saline washes

Use of inhaled corticosteroids

Avoiding the use of ibuprofen while ill

Use of laxatives to treat constipation.Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper


NSG 6005 Week 10 Assignment 2 Final Exam

1 .Question :

The drug recommended as primary prevention of osteoporosis in men over seventy years is:

Alendronate (Fosamax)

Ibandronate (Boniva)

Calcium carbonate

Raloxifene (Evista)

Question 2 .Question :

Alterations in drug metabolism among Asians may lead to:

Slower metabolism of antidepressants, requiring lower doses

Faster metabolism of neuroleptics, requiring higher doses

Altered metabolism of omeprazole, requiring higher doses

Slower metabolism of alcohol, requiring higher doses

Question 3 .Question :

Some research supports that testosterone replacement therapy may be indicated in which of the following diagnoses in men?

Age-related decrease in cognitive functioning

Metabolic syndrome

Decreased muscle mass in aging men

All of the above

Question 4 .Question :

The chemicals that promote the spread of pain locally include _________ .




neurokinin A

Question 5 .Question :

The DEA:

Registers manufacturers and prescribes controlled substances

Regulates NP prescribing at the state level

Sanctions providers who prescribe drugs off-label

Provides prescribers with a number they can use for insurance billing

Question 6 .Question : Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

The trial period to determine effective anti-inflammatory activity when starting a patient on aspirin for RA is _____ .

forty-eight hours

four to six days

four weeks

two months

Question 7 .Question :

The route of excretion of a volatile drug will likely be:

The kidneys

The lungs

The bile and feces

The skin

Question 8 .Question :

Compelling indications for an ACE inhibitor as treatment for hypertension based on clinical trials include:


Renal parenchymal disease

Stable angina


Question 9 .Question :

The American Diabetic Association has recommended which of the following tests for ongoing management of diabetes?

Fasting blood glucose

Hemoglobin A1c

Thyroid function tests


Question 10 .Question :

The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril is a known teratogen .Teratogens cause Type ____ ADR .





Question 11 .Question :

The goals of therapy when prescribing HRT include reducing:

Cardiovascular risk

Risk of stroke or other thromboembolic event

Breast cancer risk

Vasomotor symptoms

Question 12 .Question :

Patients who have angina, regardless of class, who are also diabetic should be on:


Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors

Calcium channel blockers

Question 13 .Question :

The New York Heart Association and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society have described grading criteria for levels of angina .Angina that occurs with unusually strenuous activity or on walking or climbing stair after meals is:


Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Question 14 .Question :

Patients with allergic rhinitis may benefit from a prescription of:

Fluticasone (Flonase) Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper

Cetirizine (Zyrtec)

OTC cromolyn nasal spray (Nasalcrom)

Any of the above

Question 15 .Question :

Kyle has Crohn’s disease and has a documented folate deficiency .Drug therapy for folate deficiency anemia is:

Oral folic acid 1 to 2 mg/day

Oral folic acid 1 gm/day

IM folate weekly for at least six months

Oral folic acid 400 mcg daily. Evidence-Based Pharmacology Essay Paper