Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

The Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem assignment is due by Sunday, 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 6. The guidelines and grading rubric are located in the Course Resource section.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

This Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem assignment will follow the late assignment policy specified in the course syllabus


Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem SAMPLE

The Impact of Arthritis in the United States

For most people, arthritis is a health condition associated with people over the age of 65. The stiff, inflamed joints and nagging aches and pains are just seen as side effects of aging and years of wear and tear on the body.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper While arthritis is a health condition that results from inflammation of the joints and causes chronic pain, it is not just a health condition that affects elderly people. Arthritis can develop in children, teenagers, even adults in their twenties and thirties. As a long-term care nurse for over 15 years, my familiarity with the effects of arthritis in patients living in long-term care (LTC) facilities settings is considerable. Residents suffering from chronic arthritis find it extremely difficult to lift items, open doors, walk long distances, and perform activities of daily living (ADL): bathing, getting dressed, using the toilet, eating, transferring oneself to or from the bed or chair, or generally participating in activities that require strength and flexibility.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper Millions of people suffering from arthritis do not live in LTC facilities, so they do not have nursing assistance to help them with their ADLs or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs): housework, grocery shopping, driving, caring for pets, etc.  On the other hand, millions of arthritis sufferers are forced to give up their independence every year and move into long-term care facilities as they find they are no longer able to perform normal daily functions due to the pain and discomfort caused by their arthritis.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

The Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) reports that arthritis is the predominant reason for disability in the United States and Georgia, affecting over 53 million people across the nation (Bayakly, 2015).Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper In 2013, one in four adults in Georgia, ranging in ages from 18 to 85, were reported to have been diagnosed with arthritis by their primary care physicians (Bayakly, 2015). With the average age of onset arthritis reported to be 47 years old, cost-effective evidence-based strategies are needed to treat LTC patients suffering with arthritis (Tavakoli, Akwara, Kish, 2018). This paper will examine the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and describe their backgrounds. The paper will also discuss surveillance methods, provide an epidemiology analysis of OA and RA, and explain how they are diagnosed. Lastly, this paper will reflect on what actions can be taken to address OA and RA as a family nurse practitioner……Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

Epidemiological evaluation

Between 1999 and 2005, studies were carried out to assess the long-term impact of APOC’s operations. The results showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of live microfilaria (larval forms of the Onchocerca volvulus parasite) in the eye. They also indicated that ivermectin treatment can prevent onchocercal blindness and severe itching.


In the coming years, APOC will establish sentinel villages in as many project sites as possible to evaluate CDTI project performance using epidemiological trend indicators.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

Disease monitoring and surveillance

APOC’s role in disease surveillance is to encourage countries to integrate onchocerciasis control activities into their national disease surveillance systems. Between 2008 and 2012, APOC plans to provide financial support to the Multi-Disease Surveillance Centre (MDSC) in order to meet this objective.

In collaboration with the MDSC, APOC also plans to encourage countries to increase the priority given to disease surveillance issues in their health sector strategies.

The Multi-Disease Surveillance Centre (MDSC)

The MDSC assists countries in planning and implementing an integrated disease surveillance system. This system includes active surveillance for onchocerciasis recrudescence.

The MDSC was set up to monitor onchocerciasis in the countries covered by the Onchcocerciasis Control Programme for West Africa (OCP). The same now needs to be done in APOC countries. MDSC will train epidemiologists, entomologists and technicians on all aspects of onchocerciasis epidemiological and entomological surveillance and evaluation.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

The MDSC will also analyze parasites and blackflies using DNA probes and advise countries on transmission levels.

The role of countries is to plan for and execute monitoring and surveillance activities. They also analyze and apply the findings of these activities to decision-making. WHO assists countries in developing policies, guidelines and strategies for monitoring and surveillance of onchocerciasis.

Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed.

Like the clinical findings and pathology, the epidemiology of a disease is an integral part of its basic description.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper The subject has its special techniques of data collection and interpretation, and its necessary jargon for technical terms. This short book aims to provide an ABC of the epidemiological approach, its terminology, and its methods. Our only assumption will be that readers already believe that epidemiological questions are worth answering. This introduction will indicate some of the distinctive characteristics of the epidemiological approach. Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

All findings must relate to a defined population
A key feature of epidemiology is the measurement of disease outcomes in relation to a population at risk. The population at risk is the group of people, healthy or sick, who would be counted as cases if they had the disease being studied. For example, if a general practitioner were measuring how often patients consult him about deafness, the population at risk would comprise those people on his list (and perhaps also of his partners) who might see him about a hearing problem if they had one.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper Patients who, though still on the list, had moved to another area would not consult that doctor. They would therefore not belong to the population at risk.


The importance of considering the population at risk is illustrated by two examples. In a study of accidents to patients in hospital it was noted that the largest number occurred among the elderly, and from this the authors concluded that “patients aged 60 and over are more prone to accidents.” Another study, based on a survey of hang gliding accidents, recommended that flying should be banned between 11 am and 3 pm, because this was the time when 73% of the accidents occurred. Each of these studies based conclusions on the same logical error, namely, the floating numerator:Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper the number of cases was not related to the appropriate “at risk” population. Had this been done, the conclusions might have been different. Differing numbers of accidents to patients and to hang gliders must reflect, at least in part, differing numbers at risk. Epidemiological conclusions (on risk) cannot be drawn from purely clinical data (on the number of sick people seen).Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper

Implicit in any epidemiological investigation is the notion of a target populationabout which conclusions are to be drawn. Occasionally measurements can be made on the full target population. In a study to evaluate the effectiveness of dust control measures in British coal mines, information was available on all incident (new) cases of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis throughout the country.Evaluation of an Epidemiological Disease or Problem Essay Paper