Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

Most common signs identified in the physical exam would be common symptoms of CF include persistent respiratory infections (i.e., wheezing and coughing) noted upon examination.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper Pancreatic insufficiency (i.e., greasy, foul-smelling stools) in which the parents complained of the main reason patient was brought into the clinic. A patient is Caucasian CF affects 1 in 3,000 Caucasians (Katkin, 2017). Patients age and her patient being small for five- months old.


Identify hallmark signs identified from the physical exam and symptoms.

Cystic fibrosis often occurs primarily in the white population; it affects 1 in 29 whites in the united states.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper The symptoms typically start with the respiratory and digestive systems. Respiratory symptoms include a persistent cough or wheeze, sputum production, and recurrent or severe pneumonia, and chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. “Persistence of infection incites chronic local inflammation, airway damage, bronchiectasis, microabscess formation, and foci of hemorrhagic pneumonia.

Identify hallmark signs identified from the physical exam and symptoms SAMPLE RESPONSE


I really appreciated how in the education section you mentioned to the mother what kind of symptoms would require immediate medical attention.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper This is not something that I thought about mentioning, but it is, of course, extremely important information! In my education part, I focused more on helping the mother feel better about the diagnosis and the long-term effects on her daughter. You did that, but you went a step further and that caught my eye! When a healthy child contracts the flu, it can be a scary time for any parent. But when that child has Cystic Fibrosis and the flu, it can be an actual life or death situation. The flu on it’s own could lead to a worsening in symptoms for the child, but that flu could develop into pneumonia leading to a marked decrease in lung function that could ultimately result in death (CFF, n.d.). I found an interesting study, however, of a patient with cystic fibrosis that seemed to present with flu, but it turned out to be a completely different and rare disease that is not usually associated with cystic fibrosis; Kawasaki Disease.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper So, this teaches us that we should never take the easy way and just assume, but “when the clinical course does not follow a typical pathway including persistent, high fever, alternate etiologies must be considered” (Osborne, Stillwell, Zemanick, & Dominguez, 2017). Thank you for your very informative post!

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body.

Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

Although cystic fibrosis requires daily care, people with the condition are usually able to attend school and work, and often have a better quality of life than people with cystic fibrosis had in previous decades. Improvements in screening and treatments mean people with cystic fibrosis now may live into their mid- to late 30s, on average, and some are living into their 40s and 50s.


Screening of newborns for cystic fibrosis is now performed in every state in the United States. As a result, the condition can be diagnosed within the first month of life, before symptoms develop. For people born before newborn screening was performed,Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper it’s important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis signs and symptoms vary, depending on the severity of the disease. Even in the same person, symptoms may worsen or improve as time passes. Some people may not experience symptoms until adolescence or adulthood.

People with cystic fibrosis have a higher than normal level of salt in their sweat. Parents often can taste the salt when they kiss their children. Most of the other signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis affect the respiratory system and digestive system. However, adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have atypical symptoms, such as recurring bouts of inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis), infertility and recurring pneumonia.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper


Respiratory signs and symptoms

The thick and sticky mucus associated with cystic fibrosis clogs the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. This can cause signs and symptoms such as:

  • A persistent cough that produces thick mucus (sputum)
  • Wheezing
  • Breathlessness
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Repeated lung infections
  • Inflamed nasal passages or a stuffy nose

Digestive signs and symptoms

The thick mucus can also block tubes that carry digestive enzymes from your pancreas to your small intestine. Without these digestive enzymes, your intestines aren’t able to completely absorb the nutrients in the food you eat. Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper The result is often:

  • Foul-smelling, greasy stools
  • Poor weight gain and growth
  • Intestinal blockage, particularly in newborns (meconium ileus)
  • Severe constipation

Frequent straining while passing stool can cause part of the rectum — the end of the large intestine — to protrude outside the anus (rectal prolapse). When this occurs in children, it may be a sign of cystic fibrosis. Parents should consult a physician knowledgeable about cystic fibrosis. Rectal prolapse in children may sometimes require surgery. Rectal prolapse in children with cystic fibrosis is less common than it was in the past, which may be due to earlier testing, diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper


In cystic fibrosis, a defect (mutation) in a gene changes a protein that regulates the movement of salt in and out of cells. The result is thick, sticky mucus in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, as well as increased salt in sweat.

Many different defects can occur in the gene.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper The type of gene mutation is associated with the severity of the condition.

Children need to inherit one copy of the gene from each parent in order to have the disease. If children inherit only one copy, they won’t develop cystic fibrosis. However, they will be carriers and possibly pass the gene to their own children.

Risk factors

  • Family history. Because cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, it runs in families.
  • Race. Although cystic fibrosis occurs in all races, it is most common in white people of Northern European ancestry.


Respiratory system complications

  • Damaged airways (bronchiectasis). Cystic fibrosis is one of the leading causes of bronchiectasis, a condition that damages the airways.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper This makes it harder to move air in and out of the lungs and clear mucus from the airways (bronchial tubes).
  • Chronic infections. Thick mucus in the lungs and sinuses provides an ideal breeding ground for bacteria and fungi. People with cystic fibrosis may often have sinus infections, bronchitis or pneumonia.
  • Growths in the nose (nasal polyps). Because the lining inside the nose is inflamed and swollen, it can develop soft, fleshy growths (polyps).Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper
  • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis). Over time, cystic fibrosis can cause thinning of the airway walls. As a result, teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis may cough up blood.
  • Pneumothorax. This condition, in which air collects in the space that separates the lungs from the chest wall, also is more common in older people with cystic fibrosis. Pneumothorax can cause chest pain and breathlessness.
  • Respiratory failure. Over time, cystic fibrosis can damage lung tissue so badly that it no longer works. Lung function usually worsens gradually, and it eventually can become life-threatening.
  • Acute exacerbations. People with cystic fibrosis may experience worsening of their respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and shortness of breath, for several days to weeks. This is called an acute exacerbation and requires treatment in the hospital.

Digestive system complications

  • Nutritional deficiencies. Thick mucus can block the tubes that carry digestive enzymes from your pancreas to your intestines. Without these enzymes, your body can’t absorb protein, fats or fat-soluble vitamins.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper
  • Diabetes. The pancreas produces insulin, which your body needs to use sugar. Cystic fibrosis increases the risk of diabetes. Around 30 percent of people with cystic fibrosis develop diabetes by age 30.
  • Blocked bile duct. The tube that carries bile from your liver and gallbladder to your small intestine may become blocked and inflamed, leading to liver problems and sometimes gallstones.


  • Intestinal obstruction. Intestinal obstruction can happen to people with cystic fibrosis at all ages. Children and adults with cystic fibrosis are more likely than are infants to develop intussusception, a condition in which a section of the intestines folds in on itself like an accordion.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper
  • Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS). DIOS is partial or complete obstruction where the small intestine meets the large intestine.

Reproductive system complications

Almost all men with cystic fibrosis are infertile because the tube that connects the testes and prostate gland (vas deferens) is either blocked with mucus or missing entirely. Certain fertility treatments and surgical procedures sometimes make it possible for men with cystic fibrosis to become biological fathers.

Although women with cystic fibrosis may be less fertile than other women, it’s possible for them to conceive and to have successful pregnancies. Still, pregnancy can worsen the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis, so be sure to discuss the possible risks with your doctor.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

Other complications

  • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). People with cystic fibrosis are at higher risk of developing a dangerous thinning of bones.
  • Electrolyte imbalances and dehydration. Because people with cystic fibrosis have saltier sweat, the balance of minerals in their blood may be upset. Signs and symptoms include increased heart rate, fatigue, weakness and low blood pressure.


If you or your partner has close relatives with cystic fibrosis, you both may want to undergo genetic testing before having children. The test, which is performed in a lab on a sample of blood, can help determine your risk of having a child with cystic fibrosis.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

If you’re already pregnant and the genetic test shows that your baby may be at risk of cystic fibrosis, your doctor can conduct additional tests on your developing child.

Genetic testing isn’t for everyone. Before you decide to be tested, you should talk to a genetic counselor about the psychological impact the test results might carry.

Cystic Fibrosis is a recessive genetic disorder that affects the mucus lining of the lungs, which leads to breathing problems and other health problems. The lungs are composed of air passages, starting from the trachea (or windpipe) which divides into a left and right main bronchus, which keep dividing until they become bronchioles, and finally terminating into alveoli. The alveoli are small folded membranes shaped like a cluster of grapes.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper They are the interface between the air and blood stream and that is where gas exchange takes place.
Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder of exocrine gland secretion – it leads to thickened secretions within the airways within the lungs – which can subsequently become infected. Thus the affected individual suffers from chronic infection within the lung leading to bronchiectasis.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper The lungs are not the only glands affected, however – numerous other organs which have exocrine glands (e.g. gut, pancreas, skin, vas deferens) are affected.

Statistics on Cystic Fibrosis

This condition is the most conmon genetic lethal disorders in Caucasian people. One in every 25 babies born in Australia will carry the cystic fibrosis gene. The number of Caucasian infants affected with cystic fibrosis ranges from 1:1600 to 1:2500. Each year 70 babies are born in Australia with cystic fibrosis. As a result, new studies into better screening programs are currently being developed.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper


Risk Factors for Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive condition – that means that a person needs two defective genes (one from each parent) to develop the condition. The gene that has been thought to cause cystic fibrosis is called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator or CFTR.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper This gene has been located on chromosome 7.

Cystic Fibrosis

Progression of Cystic Fibrosis

The severity and extent of the disease varys greatly amongst cystic fibrosis patients. In general, the condition results in defective chloride ion transport across the epithelial cells and increased viscosity of bodily secretions, specifically secretions from the respiratory tract (i.e. lungs, throat) and pancreas. As a result, the patient is predisposed to pancreatic insufficiency and recurrent chest infections.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

This condition may also lead to bowel problems such as malaborption, bowel obstructions and constipation. Due to the abnormal transport of chloride ions, this abnormality can be detected in sweat. This abnormality lead to a diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis, named the sweat test.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper

Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis

Children presenting with cystic fibrosis may experience recurrent chest infections and failure to thrive (i.e. not growing to normal weight and height compared to children of the same age). The child may also suffer from very smelly, light coloured stools. 10% of children that had a history of meconium ileus will have cystic fibrosis.Cystic Fibrosis Assignment Paper